power: The ability to or capacity to do something or act in aparticular way. ie the capabitlity or ability to influence the behaviour of others in a particular way or course of events.

1. belief systems

2. power is contextual

3. imagery

4. energy

5. Authority

6. strength

7. Money

8. Property

what is discourse? is a written,spoken communication or debate
Discourse and Control
External control (exclusion, prohibition, rejection)
Regulating access to knowledge (education system, professional discourse)
Internalised rules (how we make sense of ourselves and the world)

“In every society the production of discourse is at once controlled, selected, organized and redistributed according to a
certain number of procedures.” (Foucault 1972: 229)

Discipline or Punish?
Regulating access to knowledge (education system, professional discourse)
Internalised rules (how we make sense of ourselves and the world)

for example The Panopticon prison, the fact that we think some one else is always watching us, which may not be the case. we tend to behave in a particular way. “the fundamental codes of culture – those governing its language, its schemas of perception, its exchanges, its techniques, its values, the hierarchy of practices – establish for every man (…) the
empirical orders with which he will be dealing and within which he will be at home.” (Foucault 1966: preface)

Discourse makes it possible to construct the topic in a certain way. It also limits other ways in which the topic can be constructed “Who says what, to whom, when, how, why and to
what effect” (Stuart Hall) is not neutral or random

Discourse is about relations of power

Meanings and metaphors
Social practices
Material circumstances
Forms of subjectivities
The power relations amongst these elements produce specific ways of making sense: knowledges and “truths” Discourse shapes, determines, produces reality

Power is diffuse and productive

“discourses are not once and for all subservient to power or raised up against it, any more than silences are.
We must make allowances for the complex and unstable process whereby discourse can be both an instrument and an effect of power, but also a hindrance, a stumbling block, a point of resistance and a starting point for an opposing strategy. Discourse transmits and produces power; it reinforces it, but also undermines it and exposes it, renders it fragile and makes it possible to thwart it.” (Foucault 1978: 100–101)

Knowledge and Truth

how did it make you feel?
what is authentic: this is an undisputed origin and not a copy. Genuine
What makes something authentic? simply the fact that it’s not a copy of something original.
How do we react to something that we think is non authentic? disgusted depending on the subject.
Why a mora dimention? the truth morality and meaning come from Discourse.

Discourse produces truth morality and meaning Discursive “regimes of knowledge” and “regimes of truth” produce subjectivities. The Master/Slave relationship, you understand yourself in the terms that this discourse allows: but so do the others reading (subjectifying) you

Recap and Conclusions
Discourses produce subjects
Discourses are a series of narratives, behaviours, beliefs, practices, which together produce what can and cannot be said
Discourses are about complex and diffuse relations of power
Discourses produce regimes of knowledge and truth we are all part of Discipline through (self) surveillance


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