Tatoos( 2nd Artefact )

Primary Research

I wanted to know more about tatoos so i thought of making an artifact about the subject. I went to interview one of the best tatoos artists i know in west midlands to talk about different kinds of tatoos and the reasons as to why people seem to be addicted to tatoos.
i learnt a lot from him that day regarding the history of tatoos and where they originate, but for this to happen i had to design a set of questionaires to ask him.

A. Questions

why do people like tatoos?

where do tatoos originate from?

How many styles of tatoos are there?

what does it take to be a tatoos artist?

Is there any side effects from having tatoos on your body?

what is the minimum age of having tatoos?

Secondary Research

I researched on some famous tatoo magazines in the UK and USA

Amber Rose and her tattoos are on display in two magazines this month.

Amber revealed to “Inked” that she get her first tattoo (a pair of paw prints) when she was 19.

The goalkeeper, who plays for English Premier League team Everton, has his tattooed torso and rugged good looks on display on the cover of the latest edition of Adweek.

The goalkeeper, who's tattooed torso and rugged good looks are on display on the cover of the latest edition of Adweek, is close to signing big money deals with at least three national advertisers

10 Things You Didn’t Know About Tattoos

Tattoos are an art as old as time. And, as with any cultural art form, there’s a rich history behind all that ink — and some of it may really surprise you.

For example, did you know that European missionaries tried to remove tattoos by scrubbing the skin raw with sandstone? Or that one American man claims to be the only person legally allowed to tattoo copyrighted Disney characters into his skin? It’s true.

1. The Online Etymology Dictionary traces the word “tattoo” back to the Polynesian noun tatau, meaning “puncture, mark made on skin.” Some have even suggested that the word is onomatopoeic, mimicking thetapping sound of early tattooing implements.

2. Prison tattoo artists use materials such as cd player motors, springs, pens and soot (among other found materials) to create tools and inks for tattooing fellow inmates. In some Russian prisons, they make ink with melted boot heels mixed with urine or blood.

3. The first tattooing machine (the precursor to today’s tattoo gun) was patented by Samuel F. O’Reilley in 1891. It was actually just a modification of an invention designed for autographic printing, first patented by Thomas Edison 15 years earlier.

4. According to some sources, different types of sailors’ tattoos held different meanings at different times in history. For example, a turtle meant he had crossed the equator; a full-rigged ship meant he navigated around cape horn; and a dragon indicated that the sailor served in China.

5. Several U.S. presidents are rumored to have had tattoos, including Franklin Pierce and Dwight Eisenhower. Theodore Roosevelt, however, is confirmed to have had a family crest inked into his chest.

6. Ötzi the Iceman is the oldest natural mummy ever discovered in Europe (he was found between Austria and Italy), and is believed to have lived around 5,200 years ago. After observing his tattooed body, some researchers believe his markings may have had medical significance, as they bear a “striking proximity” to the locations of the body’s acupuncture points.

7. In 1999, toy maker Mattel introduced the Butterfly Art Barbie which came with a butterly tattoo on her stomach, along with temporary tattoos for the doll’s owners. It was eventually taken off the market afternumerous complaints were recieved from parents. Mattel later released the Totally Stylin’ Tattoos Barbie in 2009, complete with a temporary-tattoo “gun,” and then the Tokidoki Barbie in 2011, featuring tattoos on her arm and collarbone.

8. Between the years 1961 and 1997, it was illegal to get a tattoo in New York City. It was banned by the Department of Health after an outbreak of hepatitis B.

9. The very first televised beauty pageant (filmed at the 1939 World’s Fair) featured a heavily-tattooed contestant named Betty Broadbent, who was already somewhat famous as a circus performer for the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus.

10. In an annual survey conducted by the Center for Professional Excellence at Pennsylvania’s York College in 2012, 61 percent of human resource managers claimed that an applicant’s chances would be hindered by a tattoo. A year earlier in 2011, it was only 57 percent.

Guidelines For a Tattoo Virgin

Getting your first tattoo can be an intimidating process, especially if you haven’t done your research. Once you settle on a design, you still have to figure out where to get it, who should do it, what precautions to take and how to care for it. And if you’re wary of needles or pain, the process becomes that much more complicated.
 But don’t get overwhelmed just yet, because we’ve contacted one of the top parlors in the country (as well as a tattoo removal expert) to get the answers to all of your burning questions. Hopefully, they can take some of the sting out of getting your first tattoo.

It’s important to choose your body art carefully.

“Don’t get a tattoo thinking that it can be removed later in life,” says Khani Zulu, co-owner of Zulu Tattoo in Los Angeles. She stresses that tattoos, by definition, are meant to be permanent. “You should think long and hard about a design that you’ll be happy with for years to come,” she adds.

If you haven’t yet decided on a design for your tattoo, it’s best to choose something that holds personal meaning or work with an artist to create entirely original artwork. “Choose a design that speaks to you in some way,” says Khani, adding that people often choose to represent their heritage or culture with a tattoo. “Even if you choose a universal symbol, make sure that it speaks to you.”

Not all artists and tattoo shops are created equal.

Once you’ve chosen your tattoo (and a body part to showcase it), you’ll need to research tattoo parlors and tattoo artists. The internet can be a useful tool, but you should also be visiting shops first-hand. “Do consultations and ask around,” advises Zulu. “Seek out an experienced artist and look for consistency in their portfolio.”

It’s also important to inquire about the certifications at a potential tattoo shop. Requirements vary from state to state, but Zulu says your tattoo artist should always hold a current Blood Borne Pathogens Certificate and know basic first aid procedures.

Finally, keep an eye out for hygienic tattooing practices. “Make sure the shop is clean,” says Khani, “and make sure that you are made to feel comfortable.” She adds that all tattoo needles and inks should be disposable and one-time-use only, and if you see something that indicates otherwise, head for the door.

Watch what you eat and drink the night before.

Essentially, you want your skin to be ready for your new ink, and that means eating right and getting a good night’s rest. “A tattoo causes trauma to the body, so you and your immune system should be in tip-top shape,” Khani advises. “You want your body as clean as possible to promote the best healing.”

The night before your appointment, Zulu says it’s a good idea to stick to a relatively healthy diet. Alcohol, for instance, should be avoided or strictly limited. “It can increase the amount of bleeding that happens,” she warns. “Also, avoid overly processed, salty or sugary foods,” she adds, saying that sodium nitrates and sugars can increase inflammation and swelling.

It’s going to hurt.

“Yes, of course it hurts!” claims Zulu. She says the pain of a tattoo is annoying more than anything else, but acknowledges that each customer feels pain in their own way. “It’s hard to describe,” she admits. “It’s different for each person.”

Even after the tattooing process is done, however, you can expect your skin to be red and sore for a while. According to the aftercare section of Zulu Tattoo’s website, your tattoo might feel like an itchy sunburn for several days after the procedure, sometimes even oozing pus and blood.

It’s not over when you leave the tattoo parlor.

Now that you’ve got your new tattoo, you’re going to need to care for it. As Khani says, “Treat your new tattoo like what it is: an open wound.” She suggests washing it regularly with only mild soap and water, and never using abrasive sponges, loofahs or rags. Then, pat the tattoo — don’t rub — with paper towels.

It’s also imperative to let you skin repair itself after a tattoo, so care should be taken when choosing and applying a healing ointment. Many tattoo parlors can suggest a brand to buy (and some offer their own formula for purchase), but whatever ointment you choose, make sure it contains no petroleum or lanolin. “A tattoo needs to breathe,” notes Khani, adding that petroleum and lanolin can clog the pores.

In the end, if you clean and moisturize your tattoo regularly, you should expect it to heal completely after three or four weeks.

Removal is possible, but it doesn’t come easy or cheap.

According to Jonathan B. Levyn, a doctor of osteopathic medicine in Philadelphia, lasers are the most common method of tattoo removal. “Lasers deliver very short pulses of high intensity light into the treated area,” explains Levyn. “The tattoo is dissolved into smaller ink particles that are harmlessly removed by the body’s immune system in the weeks following treatment.” This procedure, however, costs a pretty penny (it’s around $200 per treatment, and always requires multiple treatments) and hurts just as much, if not more, than getting tattooed (Levyn likened the pain to being repeatedly snapped by rubber bands). Furthermore, Levyn states that “Not all tattoos are equally treatable, and some tattoos aren’t good candidates for removal at all.”

So what can you do if you laser removal isn’t an option? Khani at Zulu Tattoo notes that it’s possible to cover up a tattoo with another tattoo, though you should look for someone that has specific experience in drawing over tattoos, as not all artists are skilled in this particular craft.

Khani, however, delivers the absolute best advice on the subject of tattoo removal: “Make sure you get what you want the first time!”

Celebrity Tattoos and the Stories Behind Them

Seeing as we’re in the midst of a “tattoo takeover,” we figured we’d take a few minutes to talk about celebrity tattoos. They’ve become so commonplace that it’s almost rare to see a celebrity who doesn’t have one peeking out from their sleeves or their gowns.

But have you ever stopped to wonder about your favorite star’s tats? What they mean, why they’re there, or how they’ve affected lives and careers? Sometimes, the stories surrounding these markings are more interesting than the designs themselves.

 ANGELINA JOLIE

Jolie sports a variety of tattoos all over her body, but perhaps her most famous markings are on her left shoulder. What was once a loving tribute to her second husband Billy Bob Thornton (complete with a dragon) was removed to make room for a list of geographic coordinates. These coordinates, of which there are seven, correspond with the birthplaces of each of her children (Cambodia for Maddox, Vietnam for Pax, Ethiopia for Zahara, Namibia for Shiloh and France for twins Vivienne and Knox) along with the birthplace of her partner (Pitt was born in Shawnee, Oklahoma).

KATY PERRY

In addition to the singer’s many tattoos, which include a strawberry on her ankle and the word “Jesus” on her wrist, Katy Perry bears the phrase “Anuugacchati Pravaha” on her inner bicep. The words, which she and ex-husband Russell Brand both inked on themselves during happier times, roughly translate to “go with the flow” from Sanskrit. “That’s our motto,” Katy once said in an interview with the QMI agency. “We decided to get it after all the whole engagement in India, which was really beautiful and wonderful. He’d never had a tattoo and I kind of pressured him into doing it.”
RIHANNA

Every time we turn around, it seems Rihanna has a new tattoo. One of her most visible is located underneath her right clavicle, reading “Never a failure. Always a lesson.” As Rihanna explained during an interview on “The Ellen DeGeneres Show,” it’s printed backwards so she can read it whenever she looks into a mirror. “It’s basically saying that it’s OK to make a mistake,” she added. “Just don’t make them twice.”

VICTORIA BECKHAM

Spice Girl and fashionista Victoria Beckham got “Ani ledodi vedodi li haro’eh ba’shoshanim” tattooed on her neck to commemorate her sixth wedding anniversary with soccer star David Beckham (who inked the very same phrase on his forearm). The Hebrew quote, taken from the Old Testament, translates to “I am my beloved’s and my beloved is mine, who grazes among lilies.”

MIKE TYSON

Some say that Mike Tyson’s face tattoo is reminiscent of the skin carvings worn by the Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Others, like Tyson’s tattoo artist Victor Whitmill, have claimed that Tyson’s design is the intellectual property of Whitmill and Whitmill alone. Before the release of the film “The Hangover Part II,” Whitmill sued Warner Bros. for featuring the design on Ed Helms’ character without his permission. The movie studio and Whitmill eventually reached a settlement.
DAVID BECKHAM
David Beckham has more tattoos than we can count, but one particular design caused a stir in March of 2012. A provocative forearm tattoo of Victoria Beckham adorned with the vow “Til death us do part” (originally David’s way of showcasing his marital commitment) popped up in promotional posters for Sainsbury’s Active Kids initiative, which is aimed at preschool-aged children. David is currently an ambassador for the program, but some folks were none too pleased when his image — complete with a visible tattoo of his scantily-clad wife — was distributed to 47,000 schools and community groups throughout the United Kingdom.
JOHNNY DEPP

Johnny Depp famously had one of his tattoos changed from “Winona Forever” to “Wino Forever” after breaking up with actress Winona Ryder, but his forearm tattoo is here to stay. The design, which features a sparrow flying in front of a sunset with the name “Jack” beneath it, was originally fake, and was drawn on Depp for his role as Jack Sparrow in the “Pirates of the Caribbean” films. In honor of his son, John “Jack” Christopher Depp III, the star had it slightly altered and inked into his skin for real.

NICKI MINAJ

“First of all, I wish I never got the tattoo, because it’s on my arm,” says Nicki Minaj of the prominent Chinese characters. As she stated in aBillboard interview, she originally planned to get only one of the characters on the back of her neck, but found that area to be too painful. Her tattoo reportedly reads, “God is with me always.”

COLIN FARRELL

In 2001, Farrell got the name of then-wife Amelia Warner tattooedaround his ring finger, but they were only wed for four months. Later pictures of Farrell suggest he’s undergone procedures to have the tattoo removed.

JENNIFER ANISTON

“Friends” alum Jennifer Aniston got a foot tattoo in honor of her late dog Norman. The dog, a welsh corgi-terrier mix, died at the age of 15 in May 2011.

After all this reasearch and speaking to one of the best tatoo artists in westmidlands i went a head and produced my Artefact.

 Bibliography

http://www.wohoo.co.uk/amber-rose-displays-her-tattoos-for-urban-ink-and-inked-magazines-and-reveals-what-inspired-her-baldie/

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2691830/Tim-Howards-World-Cup-heroics-set-earn-place-endorsement-big-league-tattooed-torso-graces-cover-AdWeek.html

http://magazine.foxnews.com/style-beauty/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-tattoos

http://magazine.foxnews.com/style-beauty/guidelines-tattoo-virgin

http://magazine.foxnews.com/style-beauty/celebrity-tattoos-and-stories-behind-them

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